Leaf blade: The free part of the grass leaf 1 6.
Leaf sheath: The part of the grass leaf that grasps the stem 2 6.
Awn: A bristle arising from the outer covering of the seed of a grass 3.
Rhizome: An underground stem that runs horizontally 4.
Stolon: A stem that runs horizontally on the soil surface 5.
Ligule: Membranous extension at the junction of the leaf sheath and blade 6.
Boat-shaped tip: Characteristic of Poa spp 7
Tramlines: Two parallel lines, one either side of the mid-rib. Easily seen if held up to the light. Characteristic of Poa spp 8.
Rolled in bud: Characteristic of Italian rye-grass11.
Folded in bud: Characteristic of Perennial rye-grass12.
Spikelet: A small spike or branch-like part, usually referring to the spike supporting the arrangement of blossoms on grasses.
Panicle: The compound flowering head or ear of a grass in which each spikelet has a distinct stalk attached to the main stem.
Inflorescence: Compound flower head - there are three main types:
- Spike-type inflorescence - each spikelet has no individual stalk but is borne directly on the main stalk e.g. black-grass, rye-grasses and couch13.
- Lobed inflorescence - each panicle has large spikelets e.g. bromes and Cock'sfoot 14.
- Spreading inflorescence - each panicle has many small spikelets e.g. meadow-grasses, Yorkshire fog and bent grasses 15.
Annual: A plant that completes its lifecycle, from germination to death, within one year.
Calyx: The outermost part of the flower.
Cotyledon(s): The first leaves sent out by the germinating seed - the seed leaves.
Entire: Describes leaves with an even margin.
Node(s): The point on a stem from which a leaf arises.
Notch: An indentation or cut out.
Perennial: A plant that lives for more than two years and usually flowers annually.
Prostrate: Lying on the surface of the soil.
Rosette: A cluster of leaves in a circular form on the soil.
True leaves: The later leaves of a seedling developing after the cotyledons(s).
Umbellifer: A plant bearing flat-topped or rounded flower clusters
Whorl: Three or more leaves arising at the same node.